Asian Journal of Sports Medicine Asian Journal of Sports Medicine Asian J Sports Med http://www.asjsm.com 2008-000X 2008-7209 10.5812/asjsm en jalali 2017 5 27 gregorian 2017 5 27 6 1
en 10.5812/asjsm.23803 The Role of Ultrasound in Diagnosis of the Causes of Low Back Pain: a Review of the Literature The Role of Ultrasound in Diagnosis of the Causes of Low Back Pain: a Review of the Literature review-article review-article Context

Low back pain (LBP) is among the most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions in the developed countries. It is a common problem causing disability and imposing a huge economic burden to individuals and state organizations. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of the etiology of LBP.

Evidence Acquisition

The electronic databases included: PubMed (1950 to present), Ovid SP Medline (1950 to present) and ISI (1982 to present) and Google Scholar. In every search engine another search was performed using various permutations of the following keywords: ultrasonography, ultrasound imaging, low back pain, back muscles, paraspinal muscles, multifidus, transverse abdominis, muscle size, spinal canal, sacroiliac joint and spondylolisthesis.

Results

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in evaluation of patients with LBP; however, high costs, limited availability and contraindications for its use have restricted MRI utilization. In a quest for a less expensive and readily available tool to investigate LBP, clinicians and researchers found ultrasonography (US) as an alternative. In this review we discuss the US application in diagnosis of some common causes of non-specific chronic LBP. Discussed topics include evaluation of spinal canal diameter, paraspinal and transabdominal muscles, sacroiliac joint laxity, pregnancy related LBP, sacroiliitis, and spondylolisthesis using US in patients with LBP.

Conclusions

While the first researches on employing ultrasound in diagnosis of patients with LBP had been focused on spinal canal diameter, recent studies have been mostly performed to evaluate the role of transabdominal and paraspinal muscles on core stability and thereby LBP occurrence. On the other side, Doppler ultrasonography has recently played an important role in objective measurement of joint laxity as a common etiology for LBP. Doppler imaging also in pregnant patients with LBP has been recommended as a safe and sensitive method. As conclusion, according to recent and most prestigious studies, focusing more on transabdominal muscle thickness can be considered as future approach in investigations.

Context

Low back pain (LBP) is among the most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions in the developed countries. It is a common problem causing disability and imposing a huge economic burden to individuals and state organizations. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of the etiology of LBP.

Evidence Acquisition

The electronic databases included: PubMed (1950 to present), Ovid SP Medline (1950 to present) and ISI (1982 to present) and Google Scholar. In every search engine another search was performed using various permutations of the following keywords: ultrasonography, ultrasound imaging, low back pain, back muscles, paraspinal muscles, multifidus, transverse abdominis, muscle size, spinal canal, sacroiliac joint and spondylolisthesis.

Results

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in evaluation of patients with LBP; however, high costs, limited availability and contraindications for its use have restricted MRI utilization. In a quest for a less expensive and readily available tool to investigate LBP, clinicians and researchers found ultrasonography (US) as an alternative. In this review we discuss the US application in diagnosis of some common causes of non-specific chronic LBP. Discussed topics include evaluation of spinal canal diameter, paraspinal and transabdominal muscles, sacroiliac joint laxity, pregnancy related LBP, sacroiliitis, and spondylolisthesis using US in patients with LBP.

Conclusions

While the first researches on employing ultrasound in diagnosis of patients with LBP had been focused on spinal canal diameter, recent studies have been mostly performed to evaluate the role of transabdominal and paraspinal muscles on core stability and thereby LBP occurrence. On the other side, Doppler ultrasonography has recently played an important role in objective measurement of joint laxity as a common etiology for LBP. Doppler imaging also in pregnant patients with LBP has been recommended as a safe and sensitive method. As conclusion, according to recent and most prestigious studies, focusing more on transabdominal muscle thickness can be considered as future approach in investigations.

Ultrasonic Diagnosis;Low Back Pain;Review Literature Ultrasonic Diagnosis;Low Back Pain;Review Literature http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23803 Pedram Heidari Pedram Heidari Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States Farzin Farahbakhsh Farzin Farahbakhsh Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Departement of Spine, Noorafshar Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Departement of Spine, Noorafshar Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Rostami Mohsen Rostami Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Pardis Noormohammadpour Pardis Noormohammadpour Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ramin Kordi Ramin Kordi Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 14395-578, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188630227-8 Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 14395-578, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188630227-8
en 10.5812/asjsm.24054 Acute Effects of Loaded Whole Body Vibration Training on Performance Acute Effects of Loaded Whole Body Vibration Training on Performance research-article research-article Background

The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses.

Results

One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, η2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, η2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, η2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003).

Conclusions

Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions.

Background

The application of whole body vibration (WBV) as a warm-up scheme has been receiving an increasing interest among practitioners.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of loaded and unloaded WBV on countermovement jump, speed and agility.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-one healthy male college football players (age: 20.14 ± 1.65 years; body height: 179.9 ± 8.34 cm; body mass: 74.4 ± 13.0 kg; % body fat: 9.45 ± 4.8) underwent randomized controlled trials that involved standing in a half squat position (ST), ST with 30% of bodyweight (ST + 30%), whole body vibration at f = 50 Hz, A = 4 mm (WBV), and WBV with 30% bodyweight (WBV + 30% BW) after a standardized warm-up. Post measures of countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, and modified t-test were utilized for analyses.

Results

One way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the countermovement jump performance, F (3, 60 = 9.06, η2 = 2.21, P = 0.000. Post-hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW posted significant difference compared to (P = 0.008), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). There was also a significant difference in the sprint times among interventions, F (3, 60) = 23.0, η2 = 0.865, P = 0.000. Post hoc showed that WBV + 30% BW displayed significantly lower time values than ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% BW (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.000). Lastly, there was a significant difference in the agility performance across experimental conditions at F(2.01, 40.1) = 21.0, η2 = 0.954, P = 0.000. Post hoc demonstrated that WBV have lower times than ST (P = 0.013). Also, WBV + 30% BW posted lower times compared to ST (P = 0.000), ST + 30% (P = 0.000) and WBV (P = 0.003).

Conclusions

Additional external load of 30% bodyweight under WBV posted superior gains in countermovement jump, speed and agility compared to unloaded WBV, loaded non-WBV and unloaded non-WBV interventions.

Exercise;Warm-Up Exercise;Athletic Performance;Football Exercise;Warm-Up Exercise;Athletic Performance;Football http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24054 Haris Pojskic Haris Pojskic Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Jeffrey Pagaduan Jeffrey Pagaduan College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Quezon, Philippines; College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel: +63-29296033 College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Quezon, Philippines; College of Human Kinetics, University of the Philippines - Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel: +63-29296033 Edin Uzicanin Edin Uzicanin Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Fuad Babajic Fuad Babajic Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Melika Muratovic Melika Muratovic Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Department of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla University, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Center for Sports Excellence, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mario Tomljanovic Mario Tomljanovic Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia
en 10.5812/asjsm.24712 Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level research-article research-article Objectives

This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2).

Conclusions

It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according to HB performance level. This study also demonstrated the influence of aerobic capacity for HB excellence, and according to playing positions.

Results

Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups.

Background

Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet.

Objectives

This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2).

Conclusions

It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according to HB performance level. This study also demonstrated the influence of aerobic capacity for HB excellence, and according to playing positions.

Results

Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups.

Background

Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet.

Team Handball;Body Size;Fitness;Performance Level;Role Team Handball;Body Size;Fitness;Performance Level;Role http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24712 Luis Massuca Luis Massuca Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Lusofona University, Lisbon, Portugal; CIPER Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal; Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Lusofona University, Lisbon, Portugal. Tel: +35-1967033079 Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Lusofona University, Lisbon, Portugal; CIPER Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal; Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Lusofona University, Lisbon, Portugal. Tel: +35-1967033079 Braulio Branco Braulio Branco Physical Education and Sport School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Physical Education and Sport School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Bianca Miarka Bianca Miarka Physical Education and Sport School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Physical Education and Sport School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Isabel Fragoso Isabel Fragoso CIPER Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal CIPER Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal
en 10.5812/asjsm.22643 Effect of Exercise Training on the Quality of Life and Echocardiography Parameter of Systolic Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: a Randomized Trial Effect of Exercise Training on the Quality of Life and Echocardiography Parameter of Systolic Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: a Randomized Trial research-article research-article Background

Ejection fraction promotion in heart failure patients reduces mortalities and limitations.

Objectives

This study was to investigate the effect of exercise on ejection fraction of chronic heart failure patients.

Patients and Methods

The present study was conducted on patients with chronic heart failure. 66 patients were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups of 33 each. The subjects were male and female. The patients in experimental group followed an exercise program three sessions per week for 24 weeks. Echocardiography and quality of life questionnaire were used to gather data. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through pair and independent t-test.

Conclusions

Exercise program increases ejection fraction and quality of life in chronic heart failure patients, associated with management of disease by health team.

Results

The results indicated a significant difference in left ventricular diameter (LV-ESD, LV-EDD) and ejection fraction at the end of exercise program in experimental group and 24 weeks after in control group. There was a significant difference in quality of life in physical performance, activity limitation following physical problems, energy and fatigue, social performance, physical pain, and public health (P < 0.05 for all) between two groups.

Background

Ejection fraction promotion in heart failure patients reduces mortalities and limitations.

Objectives

This study was to investigate the effect of exercise on ejection fraction of chronic heart failure patients.

Patients and Methods

The present study was conducted on patients with chronic heart failure. 66 patients were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups of 33 each. The subjects were male and female. The patients in experimental group followed an exercise program three sessions per week for 24 weeks. Echocardiography and quality of life questionnaire were used to gather data. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through pair and independent t-test.

Conclusions

Exercise program increases ejection fraction and quality of life in chronic heart failure patients, associated with management of disease by health team.

Results

The results indicated a significant difference in left ventricular diameter (LV-ESD, LV-EDD) and ejection fraction at the end of exercise program in experimental group and 24 weeks after in control group. There was a significant difference in quality of life in physical performance, activity limitation following physical problems, energy and fatigue, social performance, physical pain, and public health (P < 0.05 for all) between two groups.

Heart Failure;Exercise;Quality of Life Heart Failure;Exercise;Quality of Life http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22643 Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi Department of Medical Surgical, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Department of Medical Surgical, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran Arsalan Khaledi Far Arsalan Khaledi Far Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133830205 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran; Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9133830205
en 10.5812/asjsm.26838 Minimally Invasive Modified Latarjet Procedure in Patients With Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability Minimally Invasive Modified Latarjet Procedure in Patients With Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability research-article research-article Conclusions

The Latarjet procedure demonstrated good or excellent short-term outcomes in management of patients with traumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation with a low level of post-operative complication risks.

Patients and Methods

Between 2007 and 2013, 36 consequent patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability who underwent modified Latarjet operation were enrolled in this prospective study. The MRI studies revealed labrum detachment and Hill-Sachs lesion in all shoulders. For all patients, demographic and injury data were obtained and Constant Shoulder score, Rowe score, and UCLA scores were completed by related surgeon. Stability of the shoulder was assessed with the Jobe’s relocation test preoperatively. The patients were followed up at two weeks, one month, three months, and six months from the date of the surgery and evaluated for probable complications. Above mentioned assessments were completed again at the time of the final follow-up.

Results

The average age of the enrolled patients was 24.6 (ranging from 18 to 33 years) and 35 patients out of the total of 36 patients were males. Motor-vehicle accidents were the major cause of the injuries (52%) with the average interval between the injury and operation of 3.1 ± 1.2 years (Ranging from 1 to 5 years). The average number of incidents of dislocations between the injury date and the surgery was 7.2 ± 2.1 (Ranging from 4 to 20). The average follow-up period was 37 months (Ranging from 12 to 65 months). All patients had Jobe’s relocation test (Apprehension sign) pre-operatively and negative Jobe’s relocation test post-operation. Significant improvements in functional scores were demonstrated postoperatively compared to preoperational assessment in all cases. Final follow up radiographs showed union of all the grafts and patients reported no incidents of re-dislocation during the follow-up period. One incidence of a superficial infection 2 weeks post operation was the only complication in this study. The infection was resolved with antibiotic treatment.

Background

Despite recent advances in arthroscopic soft tissue repair and reconstruction for shoulder instability, Latarjet procedure is continuously a method of choice for many cases of unstable shoulders.

Objectives

To evaluate the clinical results of minimally invasive modified Latarjet technique in recurrent, traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with obvious Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions.

Conclusions

The Latarjet procedure demonstrated good or excellent short-term outcomes in management of patients with traumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation with a low level of post-operative complication risks.

Patients and Methods

Between 2007 and 2013, 36 consequent patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability who underwent modified Latarjet operation were enrolled in this prospective study. The MRI studies revealed labrum detachment and Hill-Sachs lesion in all shoulders. For all patients, demographic and injury data were obtained and Constant Shoulder score, Rowe score, and UCLA scores were completed by related surgeon. Stability of the shoulder was assessed with the Jobe’s relocation test preoperatively. The patients were followed up at two weeks, one month, three months, and six months from the date of the surgery and evaluated for probable complications. Above mentioned assessments were completed again at the time of the final follow-up.

Results

The average age of the enrolled patients was 24.6 (ranging from 18 to 33 years) and 35 patients out of the total of 36 patients were males. Motor-vehicle accidents were the major cause of the injuries (52%) with the average interval between the injury and operation of 3.1 ± 1.2 years (Ranging from 1 to 5 years). The average number of incidents of dislocations between the injury date and the surgery was 7.2 ± 2.1 (Ranging from 4 to 20). The average follow-up period was 37 months (Ranging from 12 to 65 months). All patients had Jobe’s relocation test (Apprehension sign) pre-operatively and negative Jobe’s relocation test post-operation. Significant improvements in functional scores were demonstrated postoperatively compared to preoperational assessment in all cases. Final follow up radiographs showed union of all the grafts and patients reported no incidents of re-dislocation during the follow-up period. One incidence of a superficial infection 2 weeks post operation was the only complication in this study. The infection was resolved with antibiotic treatment.

Background

Despite recent advances in arthroscopic soft tissue repair and reconstruction for shoulder instability, Latarjet procedure is continuously a method of choice for many cases of unstable shoulders.

Objectives

To evaluate the clinical results of minimally invasive modified Latarjet technique in recurrent, traumatic anterior shoulder instability associated with obvious Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions.

Shoulder;Joints;trauma Shoulder;Joints;trauma http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26838 Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimzadeh Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimzadeh Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Ahmad-Abad Street, P.O. Box: 91799-99199, Mashhad, IR Iran, Tel: +98-5138012610, Fax: +98-5138413494 Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Ahmad-Abad Street, P.O. Box: 91799-99199, Mashhad, IR Iran, Tel: +98-5138012610, Fax: +98-5138413494 Ali Moradi Ali Moradi Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Ahmad Reza Zarei Ahmad Reza Zarei Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Orthopedic Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 10.5812/asjsm.23129 Descriptive Epidemiology of Traumatic Injuries in 18890 Adults: a 5-Year-Study in a Tertiary Trauma Center in Iran Descriptive Epidemiology of Traumatic Injuries in 18890 Adults: a 5-Year-Study in a Tertiary Trauma Center in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The risk of traumatic injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Thus, the descriptive epidemiology will provide useful information for treatment or injury prevention strategies, resource allocation, and training priorities.

Patients and Methods

In a prospective descriptive study, all traumatic injured patients attending the Orthopedic Trauma Unit of our center in a five year period were included. Demographic details, the cause of injury, injury classification and treatment were recorded. For each of the five-year age groups and each gender we calculated the numbers with fractures, dislocations, soft tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries and lacerations and derived average age and gender-specific prevalence as well as seasonal variations.

Results

A total of 18890 adults were admitted, 13870 (73.4%) males and 5020 (26.6%) females. There were 8204 (43.4%) fractures. The male fracture age distribution curve was unimodal and there was a detectable bimodal pattern in females. Under 65 years males are 3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females which decreases to equal risk over the age of 65. The most common fracture site was distal radius/ulna (13.8%), followed by tibial diaphysis (8.8%), proximal femur (7.8%), finger phalanges (6.4%), metacarpals (6%) and metatarsals (5.9%). There were seasonal variations in fracture incidence with peaks in February, March and October. The least number of fractures occurred in June.

Background

Basic epidemiological data can provide estimates when discussing disease burden and in the planning and provision of healthcare strategies. There is little quantitative information in the literature regarding prevalence of traumatic injuries from developing countries.

Objectives

The aim of the current preliminary study was to reveal the prevalence and age and gender distribution of various traumatic injuries in a tertiary referral orthopedic hospital in Iran.

Conclusions

The risk of traumatic injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Thus, the descriptive epidemiology will provide useful information for treatment or injury prevention strategies, resource allocation, and training priorities.

Patients and Methods

In a prospective descriptive study, all traumatic injured patients attending the Orthopedic Trauma Unit of our center in a five year period were included. Demographic details, the cause of injury, injury classification and treatment were recorded. For each of the five-year age groups and each gender we calculated the numbers with fractures, dislocations, soft tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries and lacerations and derived average age and gender-specific prevalence as well as seasonal variations.

Results

A total of 18890 adults were admitted, 13870 (73.4%) males and 5020 (26.6%) females. There were 8204 (43.4%) fractures. The male fracture age distribution curve was unimodal and there was a detectable bimodal pattern in females. Under 65 years males are 3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females which decreases to equal risk over the age of 65. The most common fracture site was distal radius/ulna (13.8%), followed by tibial diaphysis (8.8%), proximal femur (7.8%), finger phalanges (6.4%), metacarpals (6%) and metatarsals (5.9%). There were seasonal variations in fracture incidence with peaks in February, March and October. The least number of fractures occurred in June.

Background

Basic epidemiological data can provide estimates when discussing disease burden and in the planning and provision of healthcare strategies. There is little quantitative information in the literature regarding prevalence of traumatic injuries from developing countries.

Objectives

The aim of the current preliminary study was to reveal the prevalence and age and gender distribution of various traumatic injuries in a tertiary referral orthopedic hospital in Iran.

Epidemiology;Trauma;Fractures;Developing Countries Epidemiology;Trauma;Fractures;Developing Countries http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23129 Saeed Reza Mehrpour Saeed Reza Mehrpour Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Hossein Nabian Mohammad Hossein Nabian Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126305095 Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126305095 Leila Oryadi Zanjani Leila Oryadi Zanjani Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad-Hadi Foroughmand-Araabi Mohammad-Hadi Foroughmand-Araabi Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IR Iran Reza Shahryar Kamrani Reza Shahryar Kamrani Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/asjsm.24898 Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants review-article review-article Conclusions

Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.

Results

It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these.

Context

Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades.

Conclusions

Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.

Results

It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these.

Context

Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades.

Exercise-Induced;Oxidative Stress;Reactive Oxygen Species;Vitamin C;Vitamin E;Glutathione;Antioxidant;Minerals Exercise-Induced;Oxidative Stress;Reactive Oxygen Species;Vitamin C;Vitamin E;Glutathione;Antioxidant;Minerals http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24898 Abbas Yavari Abbas Yavari Department of Physical Education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Physical Education, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Maryam Javadi Maryam Javadi Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Parvin Mirmiran Parvin Mirmiran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122432500 Zahra Bahadoran Zahra Bahadoran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/asjsm.25330 Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers research-article research-article Results

Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers.

Materials and Methods

One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer.

Background

Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers.

Conclusions

Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high school baseball pitchers.

Results

Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers.

Materials and Methods

One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer.

Background

Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers.

Conclusions

Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high school baseball pitchers.

Grip;Pinch Strength;School Grip;Pinch Strength;School http://www.asjsm.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25330 Tsuyoshi Tajika Tsuyoshi Tajika Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan. Tel: +81-272208269, Fax: +81-27220-8270 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan. Tel: +81-272208269, Fax: +81-27220-8270 Tsutomu Kobayashi Tsutomu Kobayashi Department of Physical therapy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Gunma, Japan Department of Physical therapy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Gunma, Japan Atsushi Yamamoto Atsushi Yamamoto Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Hitoshi Shitara Hitoshi Shitara Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Tsuyoshi Ichinose Tsuyoshi Ichinose Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Daisuke Shimoyama Daisuke Shimoyama Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Chisa Okura Chisa Okura Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Saeko Kanazawa Saeko Kanazawa Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Ayako Nagai Ayako Nagai Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Kenji Takagishi Kenji Takagishi Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan