Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Do Skiers with Similar Race Time but Different Age Pace Similarly in a Cross-Country Ski Marathon?

Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis 1 , 2 and Beat Knechtle 3 , 4 , *
Authors Information
1 Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece
2 Laboratory of Exercise Testing, Hellenic Air Force Academy, Acharnes, Greece
3 Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
4 Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: June 2018, 9 (2); e14474
  • Published Online: May 26, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 2, 2017
  • Accepted: January 12, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.14474

To Cite: Theodoros Nikolaidis P, Knechtle B. Do Skiers with Similar Race Time but Different Age Pace Similarly in a Cross-Country Ski Marathon?, Asian J Sports Med. 2018 ; 9(2):e14474. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.14474.

Abstract
Copyright © 2018, Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
References
  • 1. Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Describing and understanding pacing strategies during athletic competition. Sports Med. 2008;38(3):239-52. [PubMed: 18278984].
  • 2. Leger LA, Ferguson RJ. Effect of pacing on oxygen uptake and peak lactate for a mile run. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1974;32(3):251-7. [PubMed: 4836732].
  • 3. Katch V, Weltman A, Traeger L. All-out versus a steady-paced cycling strategy for maximal work output of short duration. Res Q. 1976;47(2):164-8. [PubMed: 1067630].
  • 4. Robertson E, Pyne D, Hopkins W, Anson J. Analysis of lap times in international swimming competitions. J Sports Sci. 2009;27(4):387-95. doi: 10.1080/02640410802641400. [PubMed: 19214862].
  • 5. Aragon S, Lapresa D, Arana J, Anguera MT, Garzon B. Tactical behaviour of winning athletes in major championship 1500-m and 5000-m track finals. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(3):279-86. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2015.1009494. [PubMed: 25665767].
  • 6. Thiel C, Foster C, Banzer W, De Koning J. Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus best performance strategy. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(11):1107-15. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.701759. [PubMed: 22738897].
  • 7. Tucker R, Lambert MI, Noakes TD. An analysis of pacing strategies during men's world-record performances in track athletics. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(3):233-45. [PubMed: 19116437].
  • 8. Deaner RO, Lowen A. Males and Females Pace Differently in High School Cross-Country Races. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(11):2991-7. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001407. [PubMed: 26950352].
  • 9. Lima-Silva AE, Bertuzzi RC, Pires FO, Barros RV, Gagliardi JF, Hammond J, et al. Effect of performance level on pacing strategy during a 10-km running race. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(5):1045-53. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1300-6. [PubMed: 20012450].
  • 10. Hanley B. Pacing profiles and pack running at the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(11):1189-95. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.988742. [PubMed: 25483017].
  • 11. Deaner RO, Addona V, Carter RE, Joyner MJ, Hunter SK. Fast men slow more than fast women in a 10 kilometer road race. PeerJ. 2016;4. e2235. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2235. [PubMed: 27547544]. [PubMed Central: PMC4963220].
  • 12. Haney TJ, Mercer JA. A Description of Variability of Pacing in Marathon Distance Running. Int J Exerc Sci. 2011;4(2):133-40. [PubMed: 27182360]. [PubMed Central: PMC4738997].
  • 13. Hanley B. Pacing, packing and sex-based differences in Olympic and IAAF World Championship marathons. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(17):1675-81. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1132841. [PubMed: 26736042].
  • 14. March DS, Vanderburgh PM, Titlebaum PJ, Hoops ML. Age, sex, and finish time as determinants of pacing in the marathon. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(2):386-91. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bffd0f. [PubMed: 20224445].
  • 15. Santos-Lozano A, Collado PS, Foster C, Lucia A, Garatachea N. Influence of sex and level on marathon pacing strategy. Insights from the New York City race. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(11):933-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1367048. [PubMed: 24886929].
  • 16. Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Zingg MA, Stiefel M, Rust CA. Pacing strategy in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015;6:71-80. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S79568. [PubMed: 25848325]. [PubMed Central: PMC4376307].
  • 17. Lambert MI, Dugas JP, Kirkman MC, Mokone GG, Waldeck MR. Changes in Running Speeds in a 100 KM Ultra-Marathon Race. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3(3):167-73. [PubMed: 24482594]. [PubMed Central: PMC3905299].
  • 18. Rust CA, Rosemann T, Zingg MA, Knechtle B. Do non-elite older runners slow down more than younger runners in a 100 km ultra-marathon? BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2015;7:1. doi: 10.1186/2052-1847-7-1. [PubMed: 25973205]. [PubMed Central: PMC4430021].
  • 19. Renfree A, Crivoi do Carmo E, Martin L. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(4):409-15. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2015.1041061. [PubMed: 26034882].
  • 20. Hoffman MD. Pacing by winners of a 161-km mountain ultramarathon. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(6):1054-6. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0556. [PubMed: 24664982].
  • 21. Parise CA, Hoffman MD. Influence of temperature and performance level on pacing a 161 km trail ultramarathon. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6(2):243-51. [PubMed: 21725109].
  • 22. Tan PL, Tan FH, Bosch AN. Similarities and Differences in Pacing Patterns in a 161-km and 101-km Ultra-Distance Road Race. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(8):2145-55. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001326. [PubMed: 26808845].
  • 23. Giovanelli N, Taboga P, Lazzer S. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(5):642-7. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0135. [PubMed: 27768506].
  • 24. Bossi AH, Matta GG, Millet GY, Lima P, Pertence LC, de Lima JP, et al. Pacing Strategy During 24-Hour Ultramarathon-Distance Running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(5):590-6. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0237. [PubMed: 27618658].
  • 25. Esteve-Lanao J, Larumbe-Zabala E, Dabab A, Alcocer-Gamboa A, Ahumada F. Running world cross-country championships: a unique model for pacing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(6):1000-5. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0457. [PubMed: 24664894].
  • 26. Hanley B. Senior men's pacing profiles at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(11):1060-5. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2013.878807. [PubMed: 24506144].
  • 27. Carlsson M, Assarsson H, Carlsson T. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race. Open Access J Sports Med. 2016;7:11-9. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S101995. [PubMed: 26937207]. [PubMed Central: PMC4762471].
  • 28. Losnegard T, Kjeldsen K, Skattebo O. An Analysis of the Pacing Strategies Adopted by Elite Cross-Country Skiers. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(11):3256-60. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001424. [PubMed: 26982973].
  • 29. Knechtle B, Nikolaidis PT. The Age of Peak Marathon Performance in Cross-Country Skiing-The "Engadin Ski Marathon". J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(4):1131-6. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001931. [PubMed: 29570600].
  • 30. Touren. Originalstrecke des bekannten Engadin Skimarathon von Maloja nach S-chanf. 2015. Available from: http://www.gps-touren.ch/01_touren/einzel.php?tourId=980.
  • 31. Haymes EM, Dickinson AL. Characteristics of elite male and female ski racers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(3):153-8. [PubMed: 7402049].
  • 32. Schafer D, Gjerdalen GF, Solberg EE, Khokhlova M, Badtieva V, Herzig D, et al. Sex differences in heart rate variability: a longitudinal study in international elite cross-country skiers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115(10):2107-14. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3190-0. [PubMed: 26002403].
  • 33. Hegge AM, Bucher E, Ettema G, Faude O, Holmberg HC, Sandbakk O. Gender differences in power production, energetic capacity and efficiency of elite crosscountry skiers during wholebody, upperbody, and arm poling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(2):291-300. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3281-y. [PubMed: 26476546].
  • 34. Tonnessen E, Haugen TA, Hem E, Leirstein S, Seiler S. Maximal aerobic capacity in the winter-Olympics endurance disciplines: Olympic-medal benchmarks for the time period 1990-2013. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(7):835-9. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0431. [PubMed: 25611016].
  • 35. Carlsson M, Carlsson T, HammarstrOm D, Malm C, Tonkonogi M. Prediction of race performance of elite cross-country skiers by lean mass. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(6):1040-5. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0509. [PubMed: 24700141].
  • 36. Knechtle B, Nikolaidis PT. Sex differences in pacing during 'Ultraman Hawaii'. PeerJ. 2016;4. e2509. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2509. [PubMed: 27703854]. [PubMed Central: PMC5045888].
  • 37. Grimsmo J, Arnesen H, Maehlum S. Changes in cardiorespiratory function in different groups of former and still active male cross-country skiers: a 28-30-year follow-up study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(1):e151-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00931.x. [PubMed: 19422661].
  • 38. Stoggl R, Muller E, Stoggl T. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(1):e70-81. doi: 10.1111/sms.12254. [PubMed: 24894129].
  • 39. McGawley K, Holmberg HC. Aerobic and anaerobic contributions to energy production among junior male and female cross-country skiers during diagonal skiing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(1):32-40. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0239. [PubMed: 24088732].
  • 40. Skattebo O, Hallen J, Ronnestad BR, Losnegard T. Upper body heavy strength training does not affect performance in junior female cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(9):1007-16. doi: 10.1111/sms.12517. [PubMed: 26146761].
  • 41. Formenti D, Rossi A, Calogiuri G, Thomassen TO, Scurati R, Weydahl A. Exercise Intensity and Pacing Strategy of Cross-country Skiers during a 10 km Skating Simulated Race. Res Sports Med. 2015;23(2):126-39. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2015.1005298. [PubMed: 25670160].
  • 42. Ainegren M, Carlsson P, Tinnsten M, Laaksonen MS. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(5):1239-52. [PubMed: 22344058].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments