Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Golf-Related Low Back Pain: A Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Strategies

David M. Lindsay 1 , * and Anthony A. Vandervoort 2
Authors Information
1 Sport Medicine Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
2 School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: December 01, 2014, 5 (4); e24289
  • Published Online: November 10, 2014
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: January 29, 2014
  • Revised: May 23, 2014
  • Accepted: June 20, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.24289

To Cite: Lindsay D M, Vandervoort A A. Golf-Related Low Back Pain: A Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Strategies, Asian J Sports Med. 2014 ; 5(4):e24289. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.24289.

Copyright © 2014, Sports Medicine Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. LBP Incidence Amongst Golfers
3. Biomechanical Forces on the Lumbar Spine
4. Trunk Muscle Influences on LBP From Golf
5. Other Considerations
6. The Influence of Club Transportation Method on Lbp
7. Conclusions
  • 1. Farrally MR, Cochran AJ, Crews DJ, Hurdzan MJ, Price RJ, Snow JT, et al. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century. J Sports Sci. 2003; 21(9): 753-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Theriault G, Lachance P. Golf injuries. An overview. Sports Med. 1998; 26(1): 43-57[PubMed]
  • 3. Lindsay D, Vandervoort A. Golf-Related Low Back Pain: A Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Strategies. Int J Golf Sci. 2014;
  • 4. Parkkari J, Natri A, Kannus P, Manttari A, Laukkanen R, Haapasalo H, et al. A controlled trial of the health benefits of regular walking on a golf course. Am J Med. 2000; 109(2): 102-8[PubMed]
  • 5. Sell TC, Abt JP, Lephart SM. Science and Golf V. Proceedings of the Fifth World Scientific Congress of Golf. 2008; : 128-32
  • 6. Versteegh TH, Vandervoort AA, Lindsay DM, Lynn SK. Fitness, performance and injury prevention strategies for the senior golfer. Ann Rev Golf Coach. 2008; 2: 199-214
  • 7. Farahmand B, Broman G, de Faire U, Vagero D, Ahlbom A. Golf: a game of life and death--reduced mortality in Swedish golf players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009; 19(3): 419-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Cann AP, Vandervoort AA, Lindsay DM. Optimizing the benefits versus risks of golf participation by older people. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2005; 28(3): 85-92[PubMed]
  • 9. Cabri J, Sousa JP, Kots M, Barreiros J. Golf-related injuries: A systematic review. Eur J Sport Sci. 2009; 9(353-66)
  • 10. Stathokostas L, Theou O, Little RM, Vandervoort AA, Raina P. Physical activity-related injuries in older adults: a scoping review. Sports Med. 2013; 43(10): 955-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. McTeigue M, Lamb SR, Mottram R, Pirozzolo F. Spine and hip motion analysis during the golf swing. 1994;
  • 12. Lindsay DM, Horton JF, Paley RD. Trunk motion of male professional golfers using two different golf clubs. J Appl Biomech. 2002; 18: 366-73
  • 13. Hume PA, Keogh J, Reid D. The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sports Med. 2005; 35(5): 429-49[PubMed]
  • 14. Meister DW, Ladd AL, Butler EE, Zhao B, Rogers AP, Ray CJ, et al. Rotational biomechanics of the elite golf swing: benchmarks for amateurs. J Appl Biomech. 2011; 27(3): 242-51[PubMed]
  • 15. Lynn SK, Noffal G, Wu W, Vandervoort AA. Using principal components analysis to determine differences in 3D loading patterns between beginner and collegiate level golfers. Int J Golf Sci . 2012; 1: 25-41
  • 16. Foxworth JL, Millar AL, Long BL, Way M, Vellucci MW, Vogler JD. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; 43(9): 660-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Nesbit SM, Serrano M. Work and power analysis of the golf swing. J Sports Sci Med. 2005; 4(4): 520-33[PubMed]
  • 18. Gosheger G, Liem D, Ludwig K, Greshake O, Winkelmann W. Injuries and overuse syndromes in golf. Am J Sports Med. 2003; 31(3): 438-43[PubMed]
  • 19. McHardy A, Pollard H, Luo K. Golf injuries: a review of the literature. Sports Med. 2006; 36(2): 171-87[PubMed]
  • 20. McCarroll JR, Rettig AC, Shelbourne KD. Injuries in the amateur golfer. Phys Sportsmed. 1990; 18: 122-6
  • 21. Lindsay D, Mantrop S, Vandervoort AA. A review of biomechanical differences between golfers of varied skill levels. Ann Rev Golf Coaching. 2008; 2: 187-97
  • 22. Fox E, Lindsay DM, Vandervoort AA. Musculoskeletal injury questionnaire for senior golfers. 2002;
  • 23. Leigh RJ, Young DB. Back pain among junior golfers. 1999; 92-6.
  • 24. McCarroll JR. The frequency of golf injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1996; 15(1): 1-7[PubMed]
  • 25. Batt ME. A survey of golf injuries in amateur golfers. Br J Sports Med. 1992; 26(1): 63-5[PubMed]
  • 26. McNicholas MJ, Neilsen A, Knill-Jones RP. Golf injuries in Scotland. . 1999;
  • 27. McHardy A, Pollard H, Luo K. One-year follow-up study on golf injuries in Australian amateur golfers. Am J Sports Med. 2007; 35(8): 1354-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Sugaya H, Tsuchiya A, Moriya H. Low back injury in elite and professional golfers: an epidemiologic and radiographic study. 1999;
  • 29. Burdorf A, Van Der Steenhoven GA, Tromp-Klaren EG. A one-year prospective study on back pain among novice golfers. Am J Sports Med. 1996; 24(5): 659-64[PubMed]
  • 30. Marras WS, Granata KP. A biomechanical assessment and model of axial twisting in the thoracolumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995; 20(13): 1440-51[PubMed]
  • 31. Marras WS, Lavender SA, Leurgans SE, Fathallah FA, Ferguson SA, Allread WG, et al. Biomechanical risk factors for occupationally related low back disorders. Ergonomics. 1995; 38(2): 377-410[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Hosea TM, Gatt CJ, Galli KM. Biomechanical analysis of the golfer's back. 1990;
  • 33. Gatt CJ, Pavol MJ, Parker RD, Grabiner M. A kinetic analysis of the knees during a golf swing. 1999;
  • 34. Adams MA, Hutton WC. Mechanics of the intervertebral disc. 1988;
  • 35. Gluck GS, Bendo JA, Spivak JM. The lumbar spine and low back pain in golf: a literature review of swing biomechanics and injury prevention. Spine J. 2008; 8(5): 778-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Kumar S. Theories of musculoskeletal injury causation. Ergonomics. 2001; 44(1): 17-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. McCarroll JR, Gioe TJ. Professional golfers and the price they pay. Phys Sportsmed. 1982; 10: 64-70
  • 38. Lindsay D, Horton J. Comparison of spine motion in elite golfers with and without low back pain. J Sports Sci. 2002; 20(8): 599-605[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Morgan D, Sugaya H, Banks S. A new twist on golf kinematics and low back injuries. 1997;
  • 40. Grimshaw PN, Burden AM. Case report: reduction of low back pain in a professional golfer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32(10): 1667-73[PubMed]
  • 41. Cheetham PJ, Martin PE, Mottram RE, Laurent BF. The importance of stretching the X-factor in the downswing of golf. 2001;
  • 42. Bulbulian R, Ball KA, Seaman DR. The short golf backswing: effects on performance and spinal health implications. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2001; 24(9): 569-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Watkins RG, Uppal GS, Perry J, Pink M, Dinsay JM. Dynamic electromyographic analysis of trunk musculature in professional golfers. Am J Sports Med. 1996; 24(4): 535-8[PubMed]
  • 44. Horton JF, Lindsay DM, Macintosh BR. Abdominal muscle activation of elite male golfers with chronic low back pain. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33(10): 1647-54[PubMed]
  • 45. Cole MH, Grimshaw PN. Electromyography of the trunk and abdominal muscles in golfers with and without low back pain. J Sci Med Sport. 2008; 11(2): 174-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Parnianpour M, Nordin M, Kahanovitz N, Frankel V. 1988 Volvo award in biomechanics. The triaxial coupling of torque generation of trunk muscles during isometric exertions and the effect of fatiguing isoinertial movements on the motor output and movement patterns. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1988; 13(9): 982-92[PubMed]
  • 47. Campello M, Nordin M, Weiser S. Physical exercise and low back pain. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996; 6(2): 63-72[PubMed]
  • 48. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Altered trunk muscle recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; 80(9): 1005-12[PubMed]
  • 49. Gracovetsky S, Farfan H, Helleur C. The abdominal mechanism. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1985; 10(4): 317-24[PubMed]
  • 50. Roy SH, De Luca CJ, Casavant DA. Lumbar muscle fatigue and chronic lower back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989; 14(9): 992-1001[PubMed]
  • 51. Evans C, Oldreive W. A study to investigate whether golfers with a history of low back pain show a reduced endurance of transverse abdominis. J Man Manip Ther . 2000; 8: 162-74
  • 52. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Phys Ther. 1997; 77(2): 132-42[PubMed]
  • 53. Suter E, Lindsay D. Back muscle fatigability is associated with knee extensor inhibition in subjects with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001; 26(16)-6[PubMed]
  • 54. Evans K, Refshauge KM, Adams R, Aliprandi L. Predictors of low back pain in young elite golfers: a preliminary study. Phys Ther Sport . 2005; 6: 122-30
  • 55. Lindsay DM, Horton JF. Trunk rotation strength and endurance in healthy normals and elite male golfers with and without low back pain. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2006; 1(2): 80-9[PubMed]
  • 56. Archambault ML, Ling W, Chen B, Gatt C. A kinematic and kinetic analysis of the modern and stabilized-spine golf swings. 2008;
  • 57. Vad VB, Bhat AL, Basrai D, Gebeh A, Aspergren DD, Andrews JR. Low back pain in professional golfers: the role of associated hip and low back range-of-motion deficits. Am J Sports Med. 2004; 32(2): 494-7[PubMed]
  • 58. Nigg BM, Davis E, Lindsay D, Emery C. The effectiveness of an unstable sandal on low back pain and golf performance. Clin J Sport Med. 2009; 19(6): 464-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Wallace P, Reilly T. Spinal and metabolic loading during simulations of golf play. J Sports Sci. 1993; 11(6): 511-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 60. Kirkendall DT, Junge A, Dvorak J. Prevention of football injuries. Asian J Sports Med. 2010; 1(2): 81-92[PubMed]
  • 61. Versteegh TH, Vandervoort AA, Overend TJ. Effect of a dynamic warm-up on club-head velocity in Senior golfers. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. 2011;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments