Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Behzad Bazgir 1 , Mohsen Salesi 2 , Maryam Koushki 2 and Zahra Amirghofran 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Exercise Physiology Research Center (EPRC), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Physical Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran
3 Department of Immunology, Autoimmune Disease Research Center and Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: September 01, 2015, 6 (3); e27980
  • Published Online: September 28, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: March 20, 2014
  • Accepted: December 24, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.27980

To Cite: Bazgir B, Salesi M, Koushki M, Amirghofran Z. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes, Asian J Sports Med. 2015 ; 6(3):e27980. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.27980.

Copyright © 2015, Sports Medicine Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Pedersen BK. Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: exercise and cytokines. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000; 78(5): 532-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Zwirner NW, Domaica CI. Cytokine regulation of natural killer cell effector functions. Biofactors. 2010; 36(4): 274-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Argiles JM, Lopez-Soriano FJ, Busquets S. Therapeutic potential of interleukin-15: a myokine involved in muscle wasting and adiposity. Drug Discov Today. 2009; 14(3-4): 208-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Drivdahl RH, Alvarez B, Argiles JM. Overexpression of interleukin-15 induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vitro: implications for treatment of muscle wasting disorders. Exp Cell Res. 2002; 280(1): 55-63[PubMed]
  • 5. Pistilli EE, Bogdanovich S, Garton F, Yang N, Gulbin JP, Conner JD, et al. Loss of IL-15 receptor alpha alters the endurance, fatigability, and metabolic characteristics of mouse fast skeletal muscles. J Clin Invest. 2011; 121(8): 3120-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Quinn LS, Anderson BG, Strait-Bodey L, Stroud AM, Argiles JM. Oversecretion of interleukin-15 from skeletal muscle reduces adiposity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 296(1)-202[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Nielsen AR, Mounier R, Plomgaard P, Mortensen OH, Penkowa M, Speerschneider T, et al. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition. J Physiol. 2007; 584: 305-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Furmanczyk PS, Quinn LS. Interleukin-15 increases myosin accretion in human skeletal myogenic cultures. Cell Biol Int. 2003; 27(10): 845-51[PubMed]
  • 9. Carbo N, Lopez-Soriano J, Costelli P, Busquets S, Alvarez B, Baccino FM, et al. Interleukin-15 antagonizes muscle protein waste in tumour-bearing rats. Br J Cancer. 2000; 83(4): 526-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Riechman SE, Balasekaran G, Roth SM, Ferrell RE. Association of interleukin-15 protein and interleukin-15 receptor genetic variation with resistance exercise training responses. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004; 97(6): 2214-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Nieman DC, Davis JM, Brown VA, Henson DA, Dumke CL, Utter AC, et al. Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on immune changes after 2 h of intensive resistance training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004; 96(4): 1292-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Ostrowski K, Hermann C, Bangash A, Schjerling P, Nielsen JN, Pedersen BK. A trauma-like elevation of plasma cytokines in humans in response to treadmill running. J Physiol. 1998; 513 ( Pt 3): 889-94[PubMed]
  • 13. Nieman DC, Davis JM, Henson DA, Walberg-Rankin J, Shute M, Dumke CL, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003; 94(5): 1917-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Colbert LH, Visser M, Simonsick EM, Tracy RP, Newman AB, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(7): 1098-104[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Bamman MM, Shipp JR, Jiang J, Gower BA, Hunter GR, Goodman A, et al. Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 280(3)-90[PubMed]
  • 16. Malm C, Sjodin TL, Sjoberg B, Lenkei R, Renstrom P, Lundberg IE, et al. Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. J Physiol. 2004; 556: 983-1000[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. de Moura NR, Cury-Boaventura MF, Santos VC, Levada-Pires AC, Bortolon J, Fiamoncini J, et al. Inflammatory response and neutrophil functions in players after a futsal match. J Strength Cond Res. 2012; 26(9): 2507-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Dieli-Conwright CM, Spektor TM, Rice JC, Sattler FR, Schroeder ET. Hormone therapy attenuates exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage in postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009; 107(3): 853-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Budagian V, Bulanova E, Paus R, Bulfone-Paus S. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006; 17(4): 259-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Bulfone-Paus S, Bulanova E, Budagian V, Paus R. The interleukin-15/interleukin-15 receptor system as a model for juxtacrine and reverse signaling. Bioessays. 2006; 28(4): 362-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Ghattas MH, Abo-Elmatty DM, El-Eraki AZ. C-reactive protein 1059G/C gene polymorphism, C-reactive protein levels and acute myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2012; 13(11): 716-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Milias GA, Nomikos T, Fragopoulou E, Athanasopoulos S, Antonopoulou S. Effects of eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury on blood levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and other inflammatory markers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005; 95(5-6): 504-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Kasapis C, Thompson PD. The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45(10): 1563-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Bulfone-Paus S, Bulanova E, Pohl T, Budagian V, Durkop H, Ruckert R, et al. Death deflected: IL-15 inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis in fibroblasts by TRAF2 recruitment to the IL-15Ralpha chain. FASEB J. 1999; 13(12): 1575-85[PubMed]
  • 25. Yeo NH, Woo J, Shin KO, Park JY, Kang S. The effects of different exercise intensity on myokine and angiogenesis factors. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012; 52(4): 448-54[PubMed]
  • 26. Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P, Pedersen BK. Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001; 84(3): 244-5[PubMed]
  • 27. Steensberg A, van Hall G, Osada T, Sacchetti M, Saltin B, Klarlund Pedersen B. Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6. J Physiol. 2000; 529 Pt 1: 237-42[PubMed]
  • 28. Steensberg A, Febbraio MA, Osada T, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Saltin B, et al. Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content. J Physiol. 2001; 537: 633-9[PubMed]
  • 29. Febbraio MA, Pedersen BK. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles. FASEB J. 2002; 16(11): 1335-47[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments