Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes

Shahin Salehi 1 , Farhad Moradi Shahpar 2 , 3 , * , Gholamreza Norouzi 3 , Farshad Ghazalian 4 , Mehrshad Poursaid Esfehani 5 and Amir Hosein Abedi Yekta 5
Authors Information
1 Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Physical Education Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IR Iran
3 Iran Sports Medicine Federation, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran
5 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: June 01, 2016, 7 (2); e35826
  • Published Online: May 11, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 27, 2015
  • Revised: February 7, 2016
  • Accepted: March 6, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.35826

To Cite: Salehi S, Moradi Shahpar F, Norouzi G, Ghazalian F, Poursaid Esfehani M, et al. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes, Asian J Sports Med. 2016 ; 7(2):e35826. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.35826.

Copyright © 2016, Sports Medicine Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Maron BJ, Haas TS, Doerer JJ, Thompson PD, Hodges JS. Comparison of U.S. and Italian experiences with sudden cardiac deaths in young competitive athletes and implications for preparticipation screening strategies. Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104(2): 276-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Corrado D, Basso C, Rizzoli G, Schiavon M, Thiene G. Does sports activity enhance the risk of sudden death in adolescents and young adults? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 42(11): 1959-63[PubMed]
  • 3. Ferreira M, Santos-Silva PR, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE, Crispim V, Imaizumi C, et al. Sudden cardiac death athletes: a systematic review. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. 2010; 2: 19[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Recommendations for determining eligibility for competition in athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1994;
  • 5. Burke AP, Farb A, Virmani R, Goodin J, Smialek JE. Sports-related and non-sports-related sudden cardiac death in young adults. Am Heart J. 1991; 121(2 Pt 1): 568-75[PubMed]
  • 6. Maron BJ, Carney KP, Lever HM, Lewis JF, Barac I, Casey SA, et al. Relationship of race to sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41(6): 974-80[PubMed]
  • 7. Maron BJ, Mitchell JH. Revised eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994; 24(4): 848-50[PubMed]
  • 8. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A. The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation. 2006; 114(15): 1633-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, Mathenge R, Roberts WC, Mueller FO. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA. 1996; 276(3): 199-204[PubMed]
  • 10. Mueller FO, Cantu RC. Catastrophic injuries and fatalities in high school and college sports, fall 1982-spring 1988. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990; 22(6): 737-41[PubMed]
  • 11. Van Camp SP, Bloor CM, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Olson HG. Nontraumatic sports death in high school and college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995; 27(5): 641-7[PubMed]
  • 12. Thompson PD, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, Blair SN, Corrado D, Estes N3, et al. Exercise and acute cardiovascular events placing the risks into perspective: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2007; 115(17): 2358-68[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Inklaar H, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop NM. Periodical cardiovascular screening is mandatory for elite athletes. Neth Heart J. 2007; 15(6): 221-3[PubMed]
  • 14. Borjesson M, Pelliccia A. Incidence and aetiology of sudden cardiac death in young athletes: an international perspective. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43(9): 644-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. van der Werf C, van Langen IM, Wilde AA. The relationship between pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes and family screening. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53(24): 2309[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Hevia AC, Fernandez MM, Palacio JM, Martin EH, Castro MG, Reguero JJ. ECG as a part of the preparticipation screening programme: an old and still present international dilemma. Br J Sports Med. 2011; 45(10): 776-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Chaitman BR. An electrocardiogram should not be included in routine preparticipation screening of young athletes. Circulation. 2007; 116(22): 2610-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Link MS, Estes NA. Sudden cardiac death in the athlete: bridging the gaps between evidence, policy, and practice. Circulation. 2012; 125(20): 2511-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Maron BJ. Cardiovascular risks to young persons on the athletic field. Ann Intern Med. 1998; 129(5): 379-86[PubMed]
  • 20. Myerburg RJ, Vetter VL. Electrocardiograms should be included in preparticipation screening of athletes. Circulation. 2007; 116(22): 2616-26[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Estes N3, Link MS. Preparticipation athletic screening including an electrocardiogram: an unproven strategy for prevention of sudden cardiac death in the athlete. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012; 54(5): 451-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Maron BJ, Bodison SA, Wesley YE, Tucker E, Green KJ. Results of screening a large group of intercollegiate competitive athletes for cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987; 10(6): 1214-21[PubMed]
  • 23. Baggish AL, Hutter AMJr, Wang F, Yared K, Weiner RB, Kupperman E, et al. Cardiovascular screening in college athletes with and without electrocardiography: A cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152(5): 269-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Gupta S, Baman T, Day SM. Cardiovascular health, part 1: preparticipation cardiovascular screening. Sports Health. 2009; 1(6): 500-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Wisten A, Messner T. Symptoms preceding sudden cardiac death in the young are common but often misinterpreted. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2005; 39(3): 143-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Corrado D, Basso C, Schiavon M, Pelliccia A, Thiene G. Pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden cardiac death. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52(24): 1981-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Holst AG, Winkel BG, Theilade J, Kristensen IB, Thomsen JL, Ottesen GL, et al. Incidence and etiology of sports-related sudden cardiac death in Denmark--implications for preparticipation screening. Heart Rhythm. 2010; 7(10): 1365-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Patel A, Lantos JD. Can we prevent sudden cardiac death in young athletes: the debate about preparticipation sports screening. Acta Paediatr. 2011; 100(10): 1297-301[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Corrado D, Basso C, Pavei A, Michieli P, Schiavon M, Thiene G. Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a preparticipation screening program. JAMA. 2006; 296(13): 1593-601[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Corrado D, Basso C, Schiavon M, Thiene G. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in young athletes. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(6): 364-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Bille K, Figueiras D, Schamasch P, Kappenberger L, Brenner JI, Meijboom FJ, et al. Sudden cardiac death in athletes: the Lausanne Recommendations. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006; 13(6): 859-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Thunenkotter T, Schmied C, Dvorak J, Kindermann W. Benefits and limitations of cardiovascular pre-competition screening in international football. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010; 99(1): 29-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Marijon E, Tafflet M, Celermajer DS, Dumas F, Perier MC, Mustafic H, et al. Sports-related sudden death in the general population. Circulation. 2011; 124(6): 672-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Bessem B, Groot FP, Nieuwland W. The Lausanne recommendations: a Dutch experience. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43(9): 708-15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Ma JZ, Dai J, Sun B, Ji P, Yang D, Zhang JN. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death in China. J Sci Med Sport. 2007; 10(4): 227-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Tanaka Y, Yoshinaga M, Anan R, Tanaka Y, Nomura Y, Oku S, et al. Usefulness and cost effectiveness of cardiovascular screening of young adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38(1): 2-6[PubMed]
  • 37. Haneda N, Mori C, Nishio T, Saito M, Kajino Y, Watanabe K, et al. Heart diseases discovered by mass screening in the schools of Shimane Prefecture over a period of 5 years. Jpn Circ J. 1986; 50(12): 1325-9[PubMed]
  • 38. Alattar A, Ghani S, Mahdy N, Hussain H, Maffulli N. Pre-participation musculoskeletal and cardiac screening of male athletes in the United arab emirates. Transl Med UniSa. 2014; 9: 43-9[PubMed]
  • 39. Maron BJ. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other causes of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes, with considerations for preparticipation screening and criteria for disqualification. Cardiol Clin. 2007; 25(3): 399-414[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Maron BJ, Douglas PS, Graham TP, Nishimura RA, Thompson PD. Task Force 1: preparticipation screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 45(8): 1322-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Maron BJ, Thompson PD, Ackerman MJ, Balady G, Berger S, Cohen D, et al. Recommendations and considerations related to preparticipation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in competitive athletes: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2007; 115(12): 1643-455[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Wheeler MT, Heidenreich PA, Froelicher VF, Hlatky MA, Ashley EA. Cost-effectiveness of preparticipation screening for prevention of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152(5): 276-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Koester MC. A Review of Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes and Strategies for Preparticipation Cardiovascular Screening. J Athl Train. 2001; 36(2): 197-204[PubMed]
  • 44. Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Bjornstad HH, Vanhees L, Biffi A, Borjesson M, et al. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study Group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2005; 26(5): 516-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Pelliccia A, Maron BJ. Preparticipation cardiovascular evaluation of the competitive athlete: perspectives from the 30-year Italian experience. Am J Cardiol. 1995; 75(12): 827-9[PubMed]
  • 46. Borrione P, Quaranta F, Ciminelli E. Pre-participation screening for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in athletes. World J Methodol. 2013; 3(1): 1-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Anderson JB, Grenier M, Edwards NM, Madsen NL, Czosek RJ, Spar DS, et al. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death. Am J Cardiol. 2014; 114(11): 1763-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments