Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Applicability of the Kinect Sensor in the Rehabilitation of Balance Control in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

Hebert Olímpio Junior 1 , Danielle Romanazzi Lopes 1 , Juan Fernandes de Castro 1 , Plínio dos Santos Ramos 1 , André Gustavo Fernandes de Oliveira 2 and Agnaldo José Lopes 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences of Juiz de Fora (SUPREMA), Juiz de Fora, Brazil
2 Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, Brazil
3 Rehabilitation Sciences Post-Graduate Program, Augusto Motta University Center (UNISUAM), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: December 31, 2018, 9 (4); e82017
  • Published Online: November 28, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 12, 2018
  • Revised: October 19, 2018
  • Accepted: November 2, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.82017

To Cite: Olímpio Junior H, Lopes D R, Castro J F D, Ramos P D S, Oliveira A G F D, et al. Applicability of the Kinect Sensor in the Rehabilitation of Balance Control in the Elderly: A Pilot Study, Asian J Sports Med. 2018 ; 9(4):e82017. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.82017.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. United Nations. World population prospects: The 2017 revision, key findings and advance tables. New York; 2017. Available from:
  • 2. Rodrigues NC, Rauth J. Os desafios do envelhecimento no Brasil. In: Freitas EV PL, editor. Tratado de geriatria e gerontologia. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara-Koogan; 2002. p. 106-10.
  • 3. Judge JO, Ounpuu S, Davis R3. Effects of age on the biomechanics and physiology of gait. Clin Geriatr Med. 1996;12(4):659-78. doi: 10.1016/S0749-0690(18)30194-0. [PubMed: 8890109].
  • 4. Parahyba MI, Veras R, Melzer D. [Disability among elderly women in Brazil]. Rev Saude Publica. 2005;39(3):383-90. Portuguese. doi: 10.1093/ageing/30.suppl_4.3. [PubMed: 15997313].
  • 5. Masud T, Morris RO. Epidemiology of falls. Age Ageing. 2001;30 Suppl 4:3-7. doi: 10.1093/ageing/30.suppl_4.3. [PubMed: 11769786].
  • 6. Fabricio SC, Rodrigues RA, da Costa MJ. [Falls among older adults seen at a Sao Paulo State public hospital: Causes and consequences]. Rev Saude Publica. 2004;38(1):93-9. Portuguese. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102004000100013. [PubMed: 14963547].
  • 7. Papaléo Netto M. O estudo da velhice no século XX: Histórico, definição do campo e termos básicos. In: Freitas EV, Py L, Néri AL, Cançado FAX, Gorzoni ML, Rocha SM, editors. Tratado de geriatria e gerontologia. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2006. p. 2-12.
  • 8. Siqueira FV, Facchini LA, Piccini RX, Tomasi E, Thumé E, Silveira DS, et al. Prevalência de quedas em idosos e fatores associados. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2007;41(5):749-56. Portuguese. doi: 10.1590/s0034-89102007000500009.
  • 9. Waldron N, Hill AM, Barker A. Falls prevention in older adults - assessment and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2012;41(12):930-5. [PubMed: 23210114].
  • 10. Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(26):1701-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198812293192604. [PubMed: 3205267].
  • 11. Goudarzian M, Rahimi M, Karimi N, Samadi A, Ajudani R, Sahaf R, et al. Mobility, balance, and muscle strength adaptations to short-term whole body vibration training plus oral creatine supplementation in elderly women. Asian J Sports Med. 2017;8(1). e36793. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.36793.
  • 12. Overstall PW. The use of balance training in elderly people with falls. Rev Clin Gerontol. 2003;13(2):153-61. doi: 10.1017/s0959259803013273.
  • 13. Horak FB. Clinical assessment of balance disorders. Gait Posture. 1997;6(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/s0966-6362(97)00018-0.
  • 14. Horak FB. Postural orientation and equilibrium: What do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls? Age Ageing. 2006;35 Suppl 2:ii7-ii11. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afl077. [PubMed: 16926210].
  • 15. McComas J, Sveistrup H. Virtual reality applications for prevention, disability awareness, and physical therapy rehabilitation in neurology: Our recent work. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2002;26(2):55-61.
  • 16. Bao T, Carender WJ, Kinnaird C, Barone VJ, Peethambaran G, Whitney SL, et al. Effects of long-term balance training with vibrotactile sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults: A randomized preliminary study. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2018;15(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12984-017-0339-6. [PubMed: 29347946]. [PubMed Central: PMC5774163].
  • 17. Thompson WR, Gordon NF, Pescatello LS. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
  • 18. Dockx K, Alcock L, Bekkers E, Ginis P, Reelick M, Pelosin E, et al. Fall-prone older people's attitudes towards the use of virtual reality technology for fall prevention. Gerontology. 2017;63(6):590-8. doi: 10.1159/000479085. [PubMed: 28817828].
  • 19. Neri SG, Cardoso JR, Cruz L, Lima RM, de Oliveira RJ, Iversen MD, et al. Do virtual reality games improve mobility skills and balance measurements in community-dwelling older adults? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31(10):1292-304. doi: 10.1177/0269215517694677. [PubMed: 28933612].
  • 20. Lange B, Chang CY, Suma E, Newman B, Rizzo AS, Bolas M. Development and evaluation of low cost game-based balance rehabilitation tool using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:1831-4. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090521. [PubMed: 22254685].
  • 21. Barcala L, Colella F, Araujo MC, Salgado ASI, Oliveira CS. [Balance analysis in hemiparetics patients after training with Wii Fit program]. Fisioterapia em Movimento. 2011;24(2):337-43. Portuguese.
  • 22. Taylor MJ, McCormick D, Shawis T, Impson R, Griffin M. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48(10):1171-86. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2010.09.0171. [PubMed: 22234662].
  • 23. Clark RA, Pua YH, Oliveira CC, Bower KJ, Thilarajah S, McGaw R, et al. Reliability and concurrent validity of the Microsoft Xbox One Kinect for assessment of standing balance and postural control. Gait Posture. 2015;42(2):210-3. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.005. [PubMed: 26009500].
  • 24. Perracini MR, Ramos LR. [Fall-related factors in a cohort of elderly community residents]. Rev Saude Publica. 2002;36(6):709-16. Portuguese. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000700008. [PubMed: 12488937].
  • 25. Lin SI, Liao CF. Age-related changes in the performance of forward reach. Gait Posture. 2011;33(1):18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.09.013. [PubMed: 20951591].
  • 26. Miyamoto ST, Lombardi Junior I, Berg KO, Ramos LR, Natour J. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37(9):1411-21. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2004000900016. [PubMed: 15334208].
  • 27. Berg KO, Wood-Dauphinee SL, Williams JI, Maki B. Measuring balance in the elderly: Validation of an instrument. Can J Public Health. 1992;83 Suppl 2:S7-11. [PubMed: 1468055].
  • 28. Berg KO, Maki BE, Williams JI, Holliday PJ, Wood-Dauphinee SL. Clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992;73(11):1073-80. [PubMed: 1444775].
  • 29. Mathias S, Nayak US, Isaacs B. Balance in elderly patients: The "get-up and go" test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67(6):387-9. [PubMed: 3487300].
  • 30. Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed "Up & Go": A test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(2):142-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x. [PubMed: 1991946].
  • 31. Diamantopoulos II, Clifford E, Birchall JP. Short-term learning effects of practice during the performance of the tandem Romberg test. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2003;28(4):308-13. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2273.2003.00710.x. [PubMed: 12871243].
  • 32. Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Hoffman HJ, Sklare DA, Schubert MC. The modified Romberg Balance Test: Normative data in U.S. adults. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32(8):1309-11. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31822e5bee. [PubMed: 21892121]. [PubMed Central: PMC3190311].
  • 33. Aveiro MC, Granito RN, Navega MT, Driusso P, Oishi J. Influence of a physical training program on muscle strength, balance and gait velocity among women with osteoporosis. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2006;10(4):441–8. doi: 10.1590/s1413-35552006000400013.
  • 34. Burdea G, Coiffet P. Virtual reality technology. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 2003;12(6):663-4. doi: 10.1162/105474603322955950.
  • 35. Bisson E, Contant B, Sveistrup H, Lajoie Y. Functional balance and dual-task reaction times in older adults are improved by virtual reality and biofeedback training. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2007;10(1):16-23. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9997. [PubMed: 17305444].
  • 36. Donath L, Rossler R, Faude O. Effects of virtual reality training (exergaming) compared to alternative exercise training and passive control on standing balance and functional mobility in healthy community-dwelling seniors: A meta-analytical review. Sports Med. 2016;46(9):1293-309. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0485-1. [PubMed: 26886474].
  • 37. Hara T, Shimada T. Effects of exercise on the improvement of the physical functions of the elderly. J Phys Ther Sci. 2007;19(1):15-26. doi: 10.1589/jpts.19.15.
  • 38. Kimura T, Kobayashi H, Nakayama E, Hanaoka M. Effects of aging on gait patterns in the healthy elderly. Anthropological Science. 2007;115(1):67-72. doi: 10.1537/ase.060309.
  • 39. Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Phys Ther. 2000;80(9):896-903. [PubMed: 10960937].
  • 40. Okumiya K, Matsubayashi K, Nakamura T, Fujisawa M, Osaki Y, Doi Y, et al. The timed "up & go" test is a useful predictor of falls in community-dwelling older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(7):928-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb02737.x. [PubMed: 9670889].
  • 41. Longridge NS, Mallinson AI. Clinical romberg testing does not detect vestibular disease. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31(5):803-6. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181e3deb2. [PubMed: 20502374].
  • 42. Osti FR, de Souza CR, Teixeira LA. Improvement of balance stability in older individuals by on-water training. J Aging Phys Act. 2018;26(2):222-6. doi: 10.1123/japa.2017-0041. [PubMed: 28657810].
  • 43. Whitney SL, Poole JL, Cass SP. A review of balance instruments for older adults. Am J Occup Ther. 1998;52(8):666-71. doi: 10.5014/ajot.52.8.666. [PubMed: 9739401].
  • 44. Park SH, Lee YS. The diagnostic accuracy of the berg balance scale in predicting falls. West J Nurs Res. 2017;39(11):1502-25. doi: 10.1177/0193945916670894. [PubMed: 27784833].
  • 45. Yesilyaprak SS, Yildirim MS, Tomruk M, Ertekin O, Algun ZC. Comparison of the effects of virtual reality-based balance exercises and conventional exercises on balance and fall risk in older adults living in nursing homes in Turkey. Physiother Theory Pract. 2016;32(3):191-201. doi: 10.3109/09593985.2015.1138009. [PubMed: 27049879].
  • 46. Lesinski M, Hortobagyi T, Muehlbauer T, Gollhofer A, Granacher U. Effects of balance training on balance performance in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45(12):1721-38. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0375-y. [PubMed: 26325622]. [PubMed Central: PMC4656699].
  • 47. Hernandez SS, Coelho FG, Gobbi S, Stella F. [Effects of physical activity on cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls in elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia]. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010;14(1):68-74. Portuguese. doi: 10.1590/S1413-35552010000100011. [PubMed: 20414564].
  • 48. Pereira VV, Maia RA, Silva SM. The functional assessment Berg Balance Scale is better capable of estimating fall risk in the elderly than the posturographic Balance Stability System. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2013;71(1):5-10. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2013000100003. [PubMed: 23338160].
  • 49. Jung Y, Yeh SC, McLaughlin. M , Rizzo AA, Winstein C. Three-dimensional game environments for recovery from stroke. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2009.
  • 50. Miller KJ, Adair BS, Pearce AJ, Said CM, Ozanne E, Morris MM. Effectiveness and feasibility of virtual reality and gaming system use at home by older adults for enabling physical activity to improve health-related domains: A systematic review. Age Ageing. 2014;43(2):188-95. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft194. [PubMed: 24351549].
  • 51. Clark RA, Pua YH, Fortin K, Ritchie C, Webster KE, Denehy L, et al. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for assessment of postural control. Gait Posture. 2012;36(3):372-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.03.033. [PubMed: 22633015].
  • 52. Llorens R, Alcaniz M, Colomer C, Navarro MD. Balance recovery through virtual stepping exercises using Kinect skeleton tracking: A follow-up study with chronic stroke patients. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2012;181:108-12. [PubMed: 22954838].
  • 53. Bateni H. Changes in balance in older adults based on use of physical therapy vs the Wii Fit gaming system: A preliminary study. Physiotherapy. 2012;98(3):211-6. doi: 10.1016/ [PubMed: 22898577].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments