Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

The Effect of 8 Weeks Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Strength Training on the Torque of the External and Internal Shoulder Rotator Muscles in Elite Swimmers

Farhad Moradi Shahpar 1 , Nader Rahnama 1 , * and Shahin Salehi ORCID 2
Authors Information
1 Faculty of Physical Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: June 30, 2019, 10 (2); e82158
  • Published Online: May 26, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: July 14, 2018
  • Revised: January 23, 2019
  • Accepted: March 14, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.82158

To Cite: Moradi Shahpar F, Rahnama N, Salehi S. The Effect of 8 Weeks Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Strength Training on the Torque of the External and Internal Shoulder Rotator Muscles in Elite Swimmers, Asian J Sports Med. 2019 ; 10(2):e82158. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.82158.

Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Banks TL. Still drowning in segregation: Limits of law in post-civil rights America. J Theor Pract. 2014;32(2).
  • 2. Mountjoy M, Junge A, Alonso JM, Engebretsen L, Dragan I, Gerrard D, et al. Sports injuries and illnesses in the 2009 FINA World Championships (Aquatics). Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(7):522-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.071720. [PubMed: 20460256].
  • 3. Mountjoy M, Junge A, Benjamen S, Boyd K, Diop M, Gerrard D, et al. Competing with injuries: Injuries prior to and during the 15th FINA World Championships 2013 (aquatics). Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(1):37-43. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093991. [PubMed: 25326096].
  • 4. de Almeida MO, Hespanhol LC, Lopes AD. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among swimmers in an elite national tournament. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(7):1026-34. [PubMed: 26676276]. [PubMed Central: PMC4675188].
  • 5. Aslani H, Nourbakhsh ST, Zafarani Z, Ahmadi-Bani M, Ananloo ME, Beigy M, et al. Platelet-rich plasma for frozen shoulder: A case report. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2016;4(1):90-3. [PubMed: 26894228]. [PubMed Central: PMC4733245].
  • 6. Aslani H, Zafarani Z, Ebrahimpour A, Salehi S, Moradi A, Sabzevari S. Early clinical results of arthroscopic remplissage in patients with anterior shoulder instability with engaging hill-sachs lesion in Iran. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2014;2(1):43-6. [PubMed: 25207312]. [PubMed Central: PMC4151427].
  • 7. Gladstein AZ, Kelly JDA. Arthroscopic treatment of combined shoulder instability and rotator cuff tear. Rotator cuff injuries. Springer; 2018. p. 119-36. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-63668-9_7.
  • 8. Naik V, Koy S, Shaikh R. Comparative study between the effect of myofascial release using M2T Blade and kinesiotape on recreational badminton shoulder pain subjects: A randomised clinical trial. Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2017;6(5):1-6.
  • 9. Linaker CH, Walker-Bone K. Shoulder disorders and occupation. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29(3):405-23. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2015.04.001. [PubMed: 26612238]. [PubMed Central: PMC4836557].
  • 10. Farshad-Amacker NA, Jain Palrecha S, Farshad M. The primer for sports medicine professionals on imaging: The shoulder. Sports Health. 2013;5(1):50-77. doi: 10.1177/1941738112468265. [PubMed: 24381700]. [PubMed Central: PMC3548665].
  • 11. Bahr R, Engebretsen L. Sports injury prevention. Wiley Online Library; 2009. doi: 10.1002/9781444303612.
  • 12. Choi DY, Chung SH, Shim JH. Comparisons of shoulder stabilization muscle activities according to postural changes during flexi-bar exercise. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(6):1889-91. doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.1889. [PubMed: 26180342]. [PubMed Central: PMC4500005].
  • 13. Shonk KE. Biomechanical adaptations of the shoulder in collegiate swimmers. University of Delaware, Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology; 2014.
  • 14. Wanivenhaus F, Fox AJ, Chaudhury S, Rodeo SA. Epidemiology of injuries and prevention strategies in competitive swimmers. Sports Health. 2012;4(3):246-51. doi: 10.1177/1941738112442132. [PubMed: 23016094]. [PubMed Central: PMC3435931].
  • 15. Batalha N, Marmeleira J, Garrido N, Silva AJ. Does a water-training macrocycle really create imbalances in swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles? Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(2):167-72. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2014.908957. [PubMed: 24754705].
  • 16. Batalha N, Raimundo A, Tomas-Carus P, Paulo J, Simao R, Silva AJ. Does a land-based compensatory strength-training programme influences the rotator cuff balance of young competitive swimmers? Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(8):764-72. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2015.1051132. [PubMed: 26332051].
  • 17. Manske RC, Lewis S, Wolff S, Smith B. Effects of a dry-land strengthening program in competitive adolescent swimmers. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(6):858-67. [PubMed: 26618065]. [PubMed Central: PMC4637920].
  • 18. Prentice WE, Kaminski TW. Rehabilitation techniques for sports medicine and athletic training. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
  • 19. Boeck RL, Döhnert MB, Pavão TS. Open kinetic chain versus closed kinetic chain in advanced rehabilitation rotator cuff. Fisioterapia em Movimento. 2012;25(2):291-9. doi: 10.1590/s0103-51502012000200006.
  • 20. Jayesh PN, Muragod AR, Motimath B. Open kinematic chain exercises for SICK scapula in competitive asymptomatic over head athletes for 3 weeks. Int J Physiother Res. 2014;2(4):608-15.
  • 21. Lee DR, Kim LJ. Internal- and external-rotation peak toque in little league baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome: Improved by closed kinetic chain shoulder training. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;25(3):263-5. [PubMed: 25932944].
  • 22. Chtourou H, Souissi N. The effect of training at a specific time of day: A review. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(7):1984-2005. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825770a7. [PubMed: 22531613].
  • 23. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(4):459-67. doi: 10.1002/nur.20199. [PubMed: 17654487].
  • 24. Tovin BJ. Prevention and treatment of swimmer's shoulder. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2006;1(4):166-75. [PubMed: 21522219]. [PubMed Central: PMC2953356].
  • 25. Jobe FW, Moynes DR, Tibone JE, Perry J. An EMG analysis of the shoulder in pitching. A second report. Am J Sports Med. 1984;12(3):218-20. doi: 10.1177/036354658401200310. [PubMed: 6742305].
  • 26. Bandy WD, Timm KE. Relationship between peak torque, work, and power for knee flexion and extension in clients with grade i medial compartment sprains of the knee. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1992;16(6):288-92. doi: 10.2519/jospt.1992.16.6.288. [PubMed: 18796744].
  • 27. Kryger AI, Andersen JL. Resistance training in the oldest old: Consequences for muscle strength, fiber types, fiber size, and MHC isoforms. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17(4):422-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00575.x. [PubMed: 17490465].
  • 28. Šmite D, Upeniece I, Runce A, Gapeyeva H. Activity of scapular muscles: Comparison of open and closed kinetic chain exercises. Proc Int Sci Conf. 2017;3:429. doi: 10.17770/sie2017vol3.2422.
  • 29. Prokopy MP, Ingersoll CD, Nordenschild E, Katch FI, Gaesser GA, Weltman A. Closed-kinetic chain upper-body training improves throwing performance of NCAA division I softball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(6):1790-8. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318185f637. [PubMed: 18978626].
  • 30. Augustsson J, Esko A, Thomee R, Svantesson U. Weight training of the thigh muscles using closed vs. open kinetic chain exercises: A comparison of performance enhancement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27(1):3-8. doi: 10.2519/jospt.1998.27.1.3. [PubMed: 9440034].
  • 31. Blackburn JR, Morrissey MC. The relationship between open and closed kinetic chain strength of the lower limb and jumping performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27(6):430-5. doi: 10.2519/jospt.1998.27.6.430. [PubMed: 9617729].
  • 32. Rogol IM, Ernst G, Perrin DH. Open and closed kinetic chain exercises improve shoulder joint reposition sense equally in healthy subjects. J Athl Train. 1998;33(4):315-8. [PubMed: 16558527]. [PubMed Central: PMC1320580].
  • 33. Diederichsen LP, Norregaard J, Dyhre-Poulsen P, Winther A, Tufekovic G, Bandholm T, et al. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009;19(5):789-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.08.006. [PubMed: 19062307].
  • 34. Wilk KE, Meister K, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(1):136-51. doi: 10.1177/03635465020300011201. [PubMed: 11799012].
  • 35. Altchek DW, Warren RF, Wickiewicz TL, Skyhar MJ, Ortiz G, Schwartz E. Arthroscopic acromioplasty. Technique and results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72(8):1198-207. [PubMed: 2398090].
  • 36. Blevins FT. Rotator cuff pathology in athletes. Sports Med. 1997;24(3):205-20. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199724030-00009. [PubMed: 9327536].
  • 37. Ellenbecker TS. Shoulder rehabilitation: Non-operative treatment. Thieme; 2011.
  • 38. Roy JS, Moffet H, Hebert LJ, Lirette R. Effect of motor control and strengthening exercises on shoulder function in persons with impingement syndrome: A single-subject study design. Man Ther. 2009;14(2):180-8. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2008.01.010. [PubMed: 18358760].
  • 39. Andrade Mdos S, de Lira CA, Vancini RL, de Almeida AA, Benedito-Silva AA, da Silva AC. Profiling the isokinetic shoulder rotator muscle strength in 13- to 36-year-old male and female handball players. Phys Ther Sport. 2013;14(4):246-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2012.12.002. [PubMed: 23664056].
  • 40. Fox EL, Bowers RW, Foss ML. The physiological basis of physical education and athletics. William C Brown; 1989.
  • 41. Jobe FW, Tibone JE, Perry J, Moynes D. An EMG analysis of the shoulder in throwing and pitching. A preliminary report. Am J Sports Med. 1983;11(1):3-5. doi: 10.1177/036354658301100102. [PubMed: 6829838].
  • 42. Bayios IA, Anastasopoulou EM, Sioudris DS, Boudolos KD. Relationship between isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators and ball velocity in team handball. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001;41(2):229-35. [PubMed: 11447367].
  • 43. Patten C, Dozono J, Schmidt S, Jue M, Lum P. Combined functional task practice and dynamic high intensity resistance training promotes recovery of upper-extremity motor function in post-stroke hemiparesis: A case study. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2006;30(3):99-115. [PubMed: 17029654].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments