Asian Journal of Sports Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Exercise Prescription for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

Parisa Nejati 1 , Behnam Sobouti 2 and Hooman Angoorani 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Hazrat Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Ali Asghar Children Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Asian Journal of Sports Medicine: 10 (1); e82358
  • Published Online: March 12, 2019
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: July 18, 2018
  • Revised: December 22, 2018
  • Accepted: January 4, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.82358

To Cite: Nejati P, Sobouti B, Angoorani H. Exercise Prescription for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease, Asian J Sports Med. Online ahead of Print ; 10(1):e82358. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.82358.

Abstract
Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Limitations of Exercise in Children with CKD
3. Benefits of Exercise for Children with CKD
4. Exercise Prescription After Renal Transplantation
5. Exercise Prescription for Pediatric Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis
6. Exercise Prescription for Pediatric Patients with Hypertension (HTN)
7. Exercise Prescription for Pediatric Patients with a Single Kidney
8. Principles of Exercise Prescription in Children with Renal Disease
9. Conclusions
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Varni JW, Limbers CA, Burwinkle TM. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: A comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:43. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-43. [PubMed: 17634123]. [PubMed Central: PMC1964786].
  • 2. Warady BA, Chadha V. Chronic kidney disease in children: The global perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22(12):1999-2009. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0410-1. [PubMed: 17310363]. [PubMed Central: PMC2064944].
  • 3. Gheissari A, Kelishadi R, Roomizadeh P, Abedini A, Haghjooy-Javanmard S, Abtahi SH, et al. Chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 in Iranian children: Need for a school-based screening strategy: The CASPIAN-III study. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(1):95-101. [PubMed: 23413177]. [PubMed Central: PMC3570918].
  • 4. Gheissari A, Hemmatzadeh S, Merrikhi A, Fadaei Tehrani S, Madihi Y. Chronic kidney disease in children: A report from a tertiary care center over 11 years. J Nephropathol. 2012;1(3):177-82. doi: 10.5812/nephropathol.8119. [PubMed: 24475412]. [PubMed Central: PMC3886143].
  • 5. Akber A, Portale AA, Johansen KL. Pedometer-assessed physical activity in children and young adults with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(5):720-6. doi: 10.2215/CJN.06330611. [PubMed: 22422539]. [PubMed Central: PMC3338276].
  • 6. Ruiz JR, Castro-Pinero J, Artero EG, Ortega FB, Sjostrom M, Suni J, et al. Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(12):909-23. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.056499. [PubMed: 19158130].
  • 7. Hasselstrom H, Hansen SE, Froberg K, Andersen LB. Physical fitness and physical activity during adolescence as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in young adulthood. Danish youth and sports study. An eight-year follow-up study. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23 Suppl 1:S27-31. doi: 10.1055/s-2002-28458. [PubMed: 12012259].
  • 8. Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Adolescent overweight is associated with adult overweight and related multiple cardiovascular risk factors: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism. 1996;45(2):235-40. doi: 10.1016/S0026-0495(96)90060-8. [PubMed: 8596496].
  • 9. Robinson-Cohen C, Katz R, Mozaffarian D, Dalrymple LS, de Boer I, Sarnak M, et al. Physical activity and rapid decline in kidney function among older adults. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(22):2116-23. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.438. [PubMed: 20008696]. [PubMed Central: PMC2878734].
  • 10. Rosas SE, Reese PP, Huan Y, Doria C, Cochetti PT, Doyle A. Pretransplant physical activity predicts all-cause mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35(1):17-23. doi: 10.1159/000334732. [PubMed: 22156548]. [PubMed Central: PMC3251242].
  • 11. Clarke AL, Young HM, Hull KL, Hudson N, Burton JO, Smith AC. Motivations and barriers to exercise in chronic kidney disease: A qualitative study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015;30(11):1885-92. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv208. [PubMed: 26056174].
  • 12. Drew RC, Muller MD, Blaha CA, Mast JL, Heffernan MJ, Estep LE, et al. Renal vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Physiol Rep. 2013;1(6). e00154. doi: 10.1002/phy2.154. [PubMed: 24400156]. [PubMed Central: PMC3871469].
  • 13. Painter P, Krasnoff JB; American College of Sports Medicine. End-stage metabolic disease: Chronic kidney disease and liver failure. In: Durstine JL, Moore GE, Painter P, Roberts S, editors. ACSM's exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities. 3rd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2009. p. 175-81.
  • 14. Muller MD, Drew RC, Cui J, Blaha CA, Mast JL, Sinoway LI. Effect of oxidative stress on sympathetic and renal vascular responses to ischemic exercise. Physiol Rep. 2013;1(3). doi: 10.1002/phy2.47. [PubMed: 24098855]. [PubMed Central: PMC3787721].
  • 15. Master Sankar Raj V, Patel DR, Ramachandran L. Chronic kidney disease and sports participation by children and adolescents. Transl Pediatr. 2017;6(3):207-14. doi: 10.21037/tp.2017.06.03. [PubMed: 28795012]. [PubMed Central: PMC5532201].
  • 16. Tjaden LA, Vogelzang J, Jager KJ, van Stralen KJ, Maurice-Stam H, Grootenhuis MA, et al. Long-term quality of life and social outcome of childhood end-stage renal disease. J Pediatr. 2014;165(2):336-342 e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.04.013. [PubMed: 24837864].
  • 17. Derakhshan A, Derakhshan D, Amoozgar H, Shakiba MA, Basiratnia M, Fallahzadeh MH. Exercise test in pediatric renal transplant recipients and its relationship with their cardiac function. Pediatr Transplant. 2014;18(3):246-53. doi: 10.1111/petr.12229. [PubMed: 24483258].
  • 18. Pattaragarn A, Warady BA, Sabath RJ. Exercise capacity in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Perit Dial Int. 2004;24(3):274-80. [PubMed: 15185776].
  • 19. Wang XH, Du J, Klein JD, Bailey JL, Mitch WE. Exercise ameliorates chronic kidney disease-induced defects in muscle protein metabolism and progenitor cell function. Kidney Int. 2009;76(7):751-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.260. [PubMed: 19641484]. [PubMed Central: PMC3835682].
  • 20. Moinuddin I, Leehey DJ. A comparison of aerobic exercise and resistance training in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008;15(1):83-96. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2007.10.004. [PubMed: 18155113].
  • 21. Kouidi E, Grekas D, Deligiannis A, Tourkantonis A. Outcomes of long-term exercise training in dialysis patients: Comparison of two training programs. Clin Nephrol. 2004;61 Suppl 1:S31-8. [PubMed: 15233245].
  • 22. Goldstein SL, Montgomery LR. A pilot study of twice-weekly exercise during hemodialysis in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24(4):833-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-1079-4. [PubMed: 19093138].
  • 23. Petras D, Koutroutsos K, Kordalis A, Tsioufis C, Stefanadis C. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the progression of chronic kidney disease in the era of catheter based sympathetic renal denervation. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2013;8(3):197-205. doi: 10.2174/15748847113089990047. [PubMed: 23173962].
  • 24. Eijsermans RM, Creemers DG, Helders PJ, Schroder CH. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(11):1262-6. doi: 10.1007/s00467-004-1583-0. [PubMed: 15368119].
  • 25. Watanabe FT, Koch VH, Juliani RC, Cunha MT. Six-minute walk test in children and adolescents with renal diseases: tolerance, reproducibility and comparison with healthy subjects. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2016;71(1):22-7. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2016(01)05. [PubMed: 26872080]. [PubMed Central: PMC4737086].
  • 26. Clark SL, Denburg MR, Furth SL. Physical activity and screen time in adolescents in the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) cohort. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016;31(5):801-8. doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3287-z. [PubMed: 26684326]. [PubMed Central: PMC4924924].
  • 27. Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Tudor-Locke C. A systematic review of studies using pedometers to promote physical activity among youth. Prev Med. 2009;48(4):307-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.02.014. [PubMed: 19249328].
  • 28. Akber A, Portale AA, Johansen KL. Use of pedometers to increase physical activity among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29(8):1395-402. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-2787-6. [PubMed: 24648129]. [PubMed Central: PMC4074553].
  • 29. Howden EJ, Coombes JS, Isbel NM. The role of exercise training in the management of chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2015;24(6):480-7. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000165. [PubMed: 26447795].
  • 30. Aucella F, Battaglia Y, Bellizzi V, Bolignano D, Capitanini A, Cupisti A. Physical excercise programs in CKD: Lights, shades and perspectives: A position paper of the “physical exercise in CKD study group” of the Italian Society of Nephrology. J Nephrol. 2015;28(2):143-50. doi: 10.1007/s40620-014-0169-6.
  • 31. Pechter U, Raag M, Ots-Rosenberg M. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: A 10-year follow-up study. Int J Rehabil Res. 2014;37(3):251-5. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000063. [PubMed: 24859430].
  • 32. Kosmadakis GC, John SG, Clapp EL, Viana JL, Smith AC, Bishop NC, et al. Benefits of regular walking exercise in advanced pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(3):997-1004. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr364. [PubMed: 21795756].
  • 33. van Bergen M, Takken T, Engelbert R, Groothoff J, Nauta J, van Hoeck K, et al. Exercise training in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24(3):619-22. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-1015-7. [PubMed: 18839217].
  • 34. Kouidi E, Albani M, Natsis K, Megalopoulos A, Gigis P, Guiba-Tziampiri O, et al. The effects of exercise training on muscle atrophy in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(3):685-99. doi: 10.1093/ndt/13.3.685. [PubMed: 9550648].
  • 35. Sietsema KE, Amato A, Adler SG, Brass EP. Exercise capacity as a predictor of survival among ambulatory patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2004;65(2):719-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00411.x. [PubMed: 14717947].
  • 36. Sugatani T. Systemic activation of activin a signaling causes chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9). doi: 10.3390/ijms19092490. [PubMed: 30142896]. [PubMed Central: PMC6163495].
  • 37. Haffner D, Fischer DC. Can bisphosphonates play a role in the treatment of children with chronic kidney disease? Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26(12):2111-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1739-z. [PubMed: 21267600].
  • 38. Troib A, Guterman M, Rabkin R, Landau D, Segev Y. Endurance exercise and growth hormone improve bone formation in young and growth-retarded chronic kidney disease rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016;31(8):1270-9. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv373. [PubMed: 26560811].
  • 39. Lau KK, Obeid J, Breithaupt P, Belostotsky V, Arora S, Nguyen T, et al. Effects of acute exercise on markers of inflammation in pediatric chronic kidney disease: A pilot study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(4):615-21. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-2971-8. [PubMed: 25301024].
  • 40. Koufaki P, Greenwood SA, Macdougall IC, Mercer TH. Exercise therapy in individuals with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and synthesis of the research evidence. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2013;31:235-75. doi: 10.1891/0739-6686.31.235. [PubMed: 24894142].
  • 41. Schulz KH, Thaiss F. [Long-term outcome with end-stage renal disease - survival is not enough: Does dialysis or kidney transplantation matter?]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2012;55(4):543-51. German. doi: 10.1007/s00103-012-1450-2. [PubMed: 22441524].
  • 42. Riess KJ, Haykowsky M, Lawrance R, Tomczak CR, Welsh R, Lewanczuk R, et al. Exercise training improves aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life in renal transplant recipients. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(5):566-71. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2013-0449. [PubMed: 24766239].
  • 43. Paglialonga F, Lopopolo A, Scarfia RV, Galli MA, Consolo S, Brivio A, et al. Correlates of exercise capacity in pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr. 2013;23(5):380-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2013.04.006. [PubMed: 23800461].
  • 44. Paglialonga F, Lopopolo A, Scarfia RV, Consolo S, Galli MA, Salera S, et al. Intradialytic cycling in children and young adults on chronic hemodialysis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29(3):431-8. doi: 10.1007/s00467-013-2675-5. [PubMed: 24253591].
  • 45. Gupta-Malhotra M, Banker A, Shete S, Hashmi SS, Tyson JE, Barratt MS, et al. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28(1):73-80. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpu083. [PubMed: 24842390]. [PubMed Central: PMC4318949].
  • 46. Baracco R, Kapur G, Mattoo T, Jain A, Valentini R, Ahmed M, et al. Prediction of primary vs secondary hypertension in children. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14(5):316-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7176.2012.00603.x. [PubMed: 22533658].
  • 47. Silverstein DM, Champoux E, Aviles DH, Vehaskari VM. Treatment of primary and secondary hypertension in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(6):820-7. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0087-5. [PubMed: 16703375].
  • 48. Flynn J, Zhang Y, Solar-Yohay S, Shi V. Clinical and demographic characteristics of children with hypertension. Hypertension. 2012;60(4):1047-54. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.197525. [PubMed: 22892814].
  • 49. Flynn JT, Mitsnefes M, Pierce C, Cole SR, Parekh RS, Furth SL, et al. Blood pressure in children with chronic kidney disease: A report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. Hypertension. 2008;52(4):631-7. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.110635. [PubMed: 18725579]. [PubMed Central: PMC3136362].
  • 50. Samuels J, Ng D, Flynn JT, Mitsnefes M, Poffenbarger T, Warady BA, et al. Ambulatory blood pressure patterns in children with chronic kidney disease. Hypertension. 2012;60(1):43-50. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.189266. [PubMed: 22585950]. [PubMed Central: PMC3439139].
  • 51. Shatat IF, Flynn JT. Hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2005;12(4):378-84. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2005.07.002. [PubMed: 16198277].
  • 52. Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, et al. Beyond medications and diet: Alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: A scientific statement from the american heart association. Hypertension. 2013;61(6):1360-83. doi: 10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. [PubMed: 23608661].
  • 53. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JJ, et al. Seventh report of the joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-52. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2. [PubMed: 14656957].
  • 54. Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(3):533-53. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000115224.88514.3A. [PubMed: 15076798].
  • 55. Alpert BS. Exercise as a therapy to control hypertension in children. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21 Suppl 2:S94-6. discussion S97. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-8497. [PubMed: 11142600].
  • 56. Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Kotsis V. The role of obesity, salt and exercise on blood pressure in children and adolescents. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011;9(6):753-61. doi: 10.1586/erc.11.63. [PubMed: 21714606].
  • 57. Shephard RJ. Sports participation and the solitary kidney, with particular reference to the child athlete. Int J Appl Sport Sci. 2015;27(2):124-36.
  • 58. Riebe D, Ehrman JK, Liguori G. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2017. p. 334-8.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments